7 Ways Henry the V was a Christian King

King Henry the VThe Mirror of a Christian King

Was Henry the V a “Christian King?” William Shakespeare, in his play Henry V, seems to say “yes!”.

There is a famous line in the play which calls Henry “the mirror of all Christian kings.”What does Shakespeare tell us about his ideals of kingship through Henry V? Let’s look at some examples:

He is valiant. We began to see this in Henry IV Part One, when Henry is wounded, he keeps fighting. In Henry V, he courageously leads his men, both at Harfleur and Agincourt. He sends away the French herald who has come to arrange ransom in advance, telling the herald that he would rather die than be captured and ransomed.

He is just. Henry wants to be sure that his claim to the French throne—and therefore the war he is raging—is just, asking for the sincere advice of the bishop of Canterbury in a long conversation (Henry V, 1.2). Later, during the campaign, his old tavern companion, Bardolph is caught stealing. The king upholds the sentence of hanging, and then declares that “we give express charge that…there be nothing compelled from the villages, nothing taken but paid for, none of the French upbraided or abused in disdainful language…” (Henry V, 3.6)

He is merciful. Though he uses strong threats when addressing the besieged Harfleur, he tells his aide to be merciful to them when they surrender. He does not prosecute the man who challenged him unknowingly to fight.

He is honor-driven. In the famous “St. Crispin’s Day Speech,” when his cousin wishes they had with them more of the men they left in England, Henry replies “…I would not lose so great an honor as one man more, methinks, would share with me, for the best hope I have. O, do not wish one more!” (4.3) How different from another of Shakespeare’s characters, the inimitable Falstaff! Falstaff disdains honor as a mere word that can do nothing to help the soldier who died in its name. (Henry IV, Part I, 5.1). Henry, on the other hand, cares not whether or not he dies so long as he has honor.

Non Nobis

Non nobis Domine, non nobis,
sed nomini tuo da gloriam

Not unto us, O Lord, not unto us,
but to Your name give glory.

He is humble. More so than one would typically expect of royalty—and certainly more so than his cocky French enemies! He sees the king as another man with an extra load of responsibility, not as a god among men. After the battle, he refuses to take glory for the incredible victory, or to let his men do so. Instead, he orders that the Non Nobis and Te Deum be sung. When he engages in a different kind of campaign, the campaign to woo a princess’ heart, he is self-deprecating about his ability to woo either with words (“I am glad thou canst speak no better English, [Kate,] for if thou couldst, thou wouldst think I had sold my farm to buy my crown.”) or with good looks (“If thou canst love a fellow…whose face is not worth sunburning, that never looks in his glass for love of anything he sees there…”)(Henry V 5.2).

He is devout. His piety is not simply put on for the show—in his most intimate moments, it is what shapes him. Before the Battle of Agincourt, he muses alone and then prays a heartfelt prayer for help and forgiveness for his father’s sin. In the opening scene of the play, the Bishop of Ely calls Henry “a true love of the holy Church” (Henry V 1.1)

He is crowned. The crux of his development as a character lies in taking up the royal crown and scepter. If “the mission makes the man, ” by extension, there is a sense in which the crown makes the man. A crown is a symbol of responsibility. It is a mission and covenant. It is a great privilege, but one that can be misused.

King Richard II, the shallow and unjust king whom Henry V’s father deposed, took this mission and the concept of divine right in the wrong sense and perverted it, using his position for license. Henry V understood this mission and divine right (hence his guilt over his father’s murder of Richard) in a much truer sense than Richard.

Crowned King Henry the VThe crown, he realizes, is not a tool that he can use; rather it represents a higher authority that will turn him into a tool to serve others. He must decrease in order for his people to increase. In fact, perhaps a better description of this relationship would be “divine covenant.” By taking up the crown, Henry has sacrificed his own desires, put away “the old man,” and become a new creation of sorts. Henry discusses some of these sacrifices in his pre-battle musings on the nature of ceremony, saying that the peasant little knows “What watch the king keeps to maintain the peace, whose hours the peasant best advantages” (Henry V 4.1)

It is not inappropriate to say that coming into the kingship required a kind of conversion on Henry’s part. This is where Richard II failed. Richard was under the same set of covenantal obligations as Henry V, but rejected those obligations. As a result, he was pruned from the tree of royalty, cut off from the kingly covenant. This does not excuse Henry V’s father, Henry IV, from the responsibility of having done the deposing, but it does help us understand Henry V in contrast to his predecessors. Called to the kingship, he has become something greater and nobler than himself.

Valerie FoucachonValerie grew up in France where her father Francis Foucachon was a church planter with Mission to the World. She studied under Wes Callihan in high school through Schola Classical Tutorials, and then attended Logos School where she graduated Summa Cum Laude. She is currently a Senior at New Saint Andrews College, and an official Latin Nerd. She shows her love for the classics by quoting from the Aeneid at random times (in Latin of course). 

Can I use your DVDs in another country?

We have received several questions about whether our video courses will work in other countries.

The short answer is: YES!

For many of us in the USA, this question seems absurd, since DVDs are digital. For various reasons, mostly surrounding distribution of major motion pictures, MOST movies distributed on DVD and Blu Ray are region coded. DVDs in the US are from region 1, DVDs from Europe are region 2, etc. See the map below to see how the 6 regions are divided.

DVD-Region-mapThe DVDs released by Roman Roads Media, including the Old Western Culture series, Grammar of Poetry, Introductory Logic, and Intermediate Logic, as well as those from our partner Compass Classroom, are REGION 0. This means they will work in EVERY region of the world. We did this very intentionally since we want to make sure our overseas clients have no issue playing our DVDs!

 

Fashion in Ancient Rome

In many aspects, ancient Rome was a modern state. They had city planning, sewage, hot baths, heated floors, elaborate customs, traditions, and a rich culture. After the fall of Rome, there was a brief “dark ages” in which much of the technology and culture of Rome disappeared. That period is not as long as some would have you think (a subject discussed in the Old Western Culture curriculum), but there was a decline.

But when we think back to Rome’s height, we normally think of its technology, conquests, or even its debauchery as it declined. But what about ancient Rome’s fashion?

A Little introduction to Roman Fashion

Pompey: fresco of a market

togaMen: The basic garment was a tunic, often belted. On top of this was worn the well-known toga–but not as universally as we might think. Togas were a sign of status, and could only be worn by Roman citizens. Social classes were strictly defined, and clothing reflected this. A thin red stripe on your tunic indicated that you were from the equestrian class, and not of the common rabble. A broader red stripe indicated the senatorial class. Except for certain special instances, togas were always white. Cleaners even used urine to bleach them! Togas were not practical to wear, though, and gradually became more ceremonial rather than an everyday social garment. Hair became more complicated under some emperors, and Nero is said to have made curled hair popular among men. Beards were popular later on in the empire.

ChitonWomen: The basic garment was a tunic, either in the Greek style of a chiton, or a peplos. Both of these were simple, loose-fitted, long dresses attaching at the shoulder, often with brooches. Once a woman married, she began to wear a stola, a long, draped garment. Respectable women under the empire, however, never wore togas–to do so meant you were either a prostitute or adulteress. Hair was a platform for a great deal of opulent creativity, and could give our most elaborate modern stylists a run for their money. Piles of curls, wigs, gold hairnets, coils of braids, finger waves, and more were common, and women were expected to spend a great deal of time on fixing it. They even had special servants, called ornatrices, to fix their hair for them.

 

To give a fun, imaginative, (and anachronistic) peek into what Rome’s fashion was like, here is what a Roman “fashion magazine” might look like. Volgo means “everywhere” in Latin, and is from the verb “to publish.” And now you know where Vogue magazine got their name.

Volgo: The Roman Matron’s Fashion Magazine

Engraved Weekly in the Central Quarries. Also available for wax tablet.
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Sold wherever Latin is spoken.

Fashion Report:

This hot off the chisel from our Rome correspondent, who’s been attending the Rome Fashion Week. Rumor has it the event was so huge, it spilled into the Forum! It’s as busy as a market! Delegates from all over the empire attended. At times, there were so many tribes present, it felt like a barbarian invasion! The Parisii(1) of Gaul were the featured delegation premiering their new collection, which included striped braccae, or breeches.

Soldiers (probably barbarian) wearing breeches, or braccae

Soldiers (probably barbarian) wearing breeches, or braccae

Though popular around the Gaulish and Germanic provinces, these were not well-received in our Roman patria. Some conservative patricians expressed concern over the moral laxity of allowing breeches at the exposition, but we believe there is no cause for alarm at these avant-garde fashions. The traditional, masculine tunica and toga will always prevail against these effeminate barbarian fad fashions.(2)

Dress:

Woman in chiton and woman in stola

Woman in chiton and woman in stola

Word has it that the peplos tunic is giving way to the Greek chiton tunic! Of course, the married matrona(3) already wears a draped stola over her tunic, so this is hardly big news, but for the singles ladies who can’t wear the stola yet, this is a big step! Many chiton advocates claim it is much more flattering than the looser folds of the peplos, and has a more elegant sleeve.

Hair:

Various imperial hairstyles, with Empress Iulia Domna at the bottom

Various imperial hairstyles, with Empress Iulia Domna on the right.

Gone are the days of our grandmothers’s simple tresses. Volume is the key word in our modern day! It may take more than one servant to help you put it up in coils and curls, but it is worth the elegance! Why should men have all the fun of curling irons for their carefully arranged locks? Here are some of our favorite styles, one of which is said to be inspired by empress Julia Domna. Just be sure to set aside a few hours to work on them!

Epistulae(4) to the Front:

Salvete(5), ladies. So your man is off to fight in the empire’s service. Here are some ways you can help your miles’ morale as he helps to keep the barbarians across the Rhine.
— Sew him some braccae! Yes, I know Emperor Honorius banned them in Rome, but it’s different in the North. Out there, across the frozen wastelands of beer-drinking barbarians, breeches are a necessity of life. Don’t worry, it’s not as though the whole empire would ever start wearing them!
— Weave a scarf to protect his neck from chafing under the armor.
— Don’t forget to save metal scraps for shield and greave repairs!
— Write him often! With the new Roman road network leading across Gaul, sending letters to the front isn’t the ordeal it used to be!

Sartorial Police:

The Aedile(6) arrested three men this week for unlawfully wearing the senatorial stripe on their togas, and another for wearing the equestrian class stripe. This, of course, is a grave offense, as only the equestrian and senatorial ranks are allowed the stripe on their togas. The way these plebians get above themselves! Later in the week, a campaign began to eradicate female-toga wearers from public places. If a woman wants to wear a toga in a red-light district, fine–but let us respectable matrons set the tone with our stola in the forum.

CLASSIFIEDS:

Laundry got you down? Live like a patrician, and try Marcus’ Fuller Service! Located near the entrance to the Forum Bovarium, near the Portus Tiberinus. We offer the best bleaching services for togae and stolae in the seven hills!

NOTE FROM THE EDITOR:

The editorial staff would like to apologize for the lateness of the Alexandria fashion report–a miscommunication in hieroglyphs occurred. Interpreters at Rosetta in Egypt are working to crack the code and teach Latin to the Egyptian correspondent, as we’re all very eager to know what Cleopatra was wearing when she hosted Marc Anthony.

*NOTES:
1. The Parisii were the tribe of Gauls who gave their name to the city then called Lutecia and now known as Paris.
2. Breeches, called braccae, were worn by Gauls and German tribes, and were viewed as effeminate for Romans to wear. The emperor Honorius banned them in the 4th century AD. However, Roman soldiers fighting in their mediterranean uniforms in the northern climates found them very practical in braving the cold weather, and they became an accepted part of military gear.
3. Matrona is equivalent to our English “matron,” a married woman.
4. Epistulae - Letters
5. Salvete – (salve in the singular) was a common Latin greeting.
6. The Aedile – Aediles were elected officers who helped maintain public order.

Valerie FoucachonValerie grew up in France where her father Francis Foucachon was a church planter with Mission to the World. She studied under Wes Callihan in high school through Schola Classical Tutorials, and then attended Logos School where she graduated Summa Cum Laude. She is currently a Senior at New Saint Andrews College, and an official Latin Nerd. She shows her love for the classics by quoting from the Aeneid at random times (in Latin of course). 

The Chrysler Motor Company and Classical Art

The Benefits of a Classical Education for…Car Design?

We can see the influences of ancient classical art all around us, from the symmetrical lines of early 19th century architecture and the imposing columns on government buildings, to the classically inspired clothing of Jane Austen’s day.

But have you ever heard of a classically-inspired car? I certainly hadn’t! However, while doing work for a project, I came across this 1929 Chrysler car advertisement:
Chrysler: Tracing from the origins of classic art

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yes, in the 1920s, Chrysler decided to look forward by looking back to the classical age for inspiration in the design of their elegant new Coupe. In this and its related ad, we find references to the Parthenon, Egyptian lotus leaf, and “wave border.” Rather than start from scratch with designers’ ideas, Chrysler, in good twentieth century spirit, has applied a “scientific” approach to finding the best aesthetic ideals from the “canons of ancient classic art.” And this is not an isolated case! Other car ads from this era reflect the same classical references, though some come across as comically contrived and forced.

But men in togas and ancient stone temples hardly seem to fit with the relatively-recent development of the automobile. Were the car marketers simply trying to make any possible appeal to an intellectually elite audience? Or cultivate a more rooted image ethos in the fast-growing market? Or was there something more widespread going on?

The clue lies in the popular artistic developments of the 1920s and 30s, the Art Deco movement. We can often pick out Art Deco by its iconic combinations of clean-cut lines, swirled curves and jagged straight lines that influenced architecture, interior design, and fashion after World War One. Car design rhetoric reflected the influences on the art of the time. Art Deco represented a bold new step away from the florid and busy Art Nouveau of earlier decades, yet “symbolically referenced ancient civilizations.” It seems that automobile customers were so aware of Art Deco’s classical connections that even the Vestal Virgins helped make some car sales!

Watch Chrysler trace the early history of man as it pertains to the development of the car, from a day when engineers were classically educated!

Next Week’s Friday Foray: What the Well-Dressed Roman-About-Town is Wearing

Valerie FoucachonValerie grew up in France where her father Francis Foucachon was a church planter with Mission to the World. She studied under Wes Callihan in high school through Schola Classical Tutorials, and then attended Logos School where she graduated Summa Cum Laude. She is currently a Senior at New Saint Andrews College, and an official Latin Nerd. She shows her love for the classics by quoting from the Aeneid at random times (in Latin of course). 

Psalm 13 & G. F. Handel’s Suite No. 4 in D Minor

handelDr. David Erb recently composed a new setting to Psalm 13 influenced by Handel’s Suite No. 4 in D Minor (HWV 437) Sarabande, and it’s beautiful!

Hear Dr. Erb explain how this came about in this little out-take from the recording of Psalm 13.

And here is rendition of the original piece by G.F. Handel:

(If audio player does no appear, click HERE)

Now listen to Dr. Erb’s Psalm 13 recording:

YouTube version HERE.

If you would like to hear Psalm settings by Dr. Erb, click here: www.romanroadsmedia.com/learning-the-psalms

Guédelon: A Modern Building of an Ancient Castle

Guédelon: One Man's Castle in the Sky Gets Down-to-Earth

Guédelon: One Man’s Castle in the Sky Gets Down-to-Earth

Have you ever found yourself reading a very old book and wondering “How did they do it all?” The castles, the battles, the art, the clothing? I still can’t read a history book, or even a historical novel, without trying to imagine the historical context around each story. So when I found out about Guédelon, I got really excited! In a century when houses are built in less than a year, and even skyscrapers take only a few years, it’s hard for us to fathom what the architectural feats of yesteryear actually involved. Guédelon bridges the gap between our imaginations and reality. Visionary Michel Guyot and a team of historians, archeologists, stone-masons, wood-cutters, and builders have combined historical study with a kind of reverse archeology to build, from scratch, a medieval castle–using only medieval building techniques! Talk about bringing history to life!

Homeschool field trip anyone? You can read more about their amazing project here: The Guédelon adventure- An introduction

Next Week’s Friday Foray: How the Chrysler Motor Company looked to ancient Rome as they designed their cars.

Valerie FoucachonValerie grew up in France where her father Francis Foucachon was a church planter with Mission to the World. She studied under Wes Callihan in high school through Schola Classical Tutorials, and then attended Logos School where she graduated Summa Cum Laude. She is currently a Senior at New Saint Andrews College, and an official Latin Nerd. She shows her love for the classics by quoting from the Aeneid at random times (in Latin of course). 

Roman Feasting | Friday Foray

Friday Foray is a series of posts about fun and interesting facts about the classical world, education, or trivia. Enjoy and share!

Roman Feasting

"A Roman Feast," oil on canvas by Roberto Bompiani. Late 1800s.

“A Roman Feast,” oil on canvas by Roberto Bompiani. Late 1800s.

Gastronomy is nothing new under the sun. In fact, the Romans beat many of even our most avant-garde efforts. Sumptuous feasts were a way to impress your friends and potential allies, so no expense was spared by rich citizens. One Roman, Lucullus, even had different rooms where he would receive different guests of varying worth–and of varying cost to himself. The highest guests were said to cost around 25,000 sesterces (circa $2,500) per person. The wilder the food and rarer the delicacy, the better! One satirical account from first century author Petronius lists extravagances like dormice and pastry eggs stuffed with birds, while one of the oldest known gastronomes was apparently fond of flamingo tongues. Exotic was the mot d’ordre.

In order to enjoy the long feasts even more, the Romans developed the particularly nasty concept of a vomitorium–yes, you guessed it, a way to relieve yourself of the first part of the meal so that you can start fresh on the next course. Lavish entertainments filled the feasts as well, with dancers and music and numerous attendants. The Romans were indeed called decadent for a reason.

However, there is one thing we can be grateful to their epicurean taste for. If it were not for the Romans bringing their savoir-faire, their “know-how,” into their colonies, France would possibly never have become the wine center of the world! Bordeaux, France’s most well-known wine-producing region, was first planted with grapes imported by the Romans in the 1st century AD, and Burgundy flourished under their viticultural influences. Chateau Ausone, the highly prestigious Bordeaux wine estate, even claims that its land was once owned by Ausonius, the fourth century Gallo-Roman poet who wrote about the wines of Bordeaux. Of course, the Romans would think our drinking practices barbaric–they drank their wine well-diluted with water, and looked down on those barbarians who drank it pure! O tempora, o mores!

Valerie FoucachonValerie grew up in France where her father Francis Foucachon was a church planter with Mission to the World. She studied under Wes Callihan in high school through Schola Classical Tutorials, and then attended Logos School where she graduated Summa Cum Laude. She is currently a Senior at New Saint Andrews College, and an official Latin Nerd. She shows her love for the classics by quoting from the Aeneid at random times (in Latin of course). 

How do Credits and Transcripts work with Old Western Culture? | Webcast

Credits and Transcripts for HomeschoolersI’ve received several questions from parents about how to record Old Western Culture on a transcript, and how much credit it’s worth in terms of completeing high school.

I created a 10 min webcast to answer these questions. I hope this helps you, and don’t hesitate to post a question or comment below, or be emailing info@romanroadsmedia.com.

RESOURCES MENTIONED IN THE VIDEO:

– A blank high school transcript. Download: Word (RTF)  or PDF
– Completed example transcript: PDF

OVERVIEW:

Old Western Culture is an integrated humanities, double credit high school course. Those credits most often fit into the “Social Studies” category. Depending on the unit, Old Western History can be “de-integrated” for the purpose of fulfilling specific transcript requirements. It can fill requirements for Ancient Literature, Ancient History, Medieval History, Medieval Literatures, Early Modern History, British Literature, Poetry, Theology/Doctrine, Philosophy, Art History, and English and Writing (see video).

Wes Callihan LIVE? Yes please! (And a special offer)

Wes Callihan reading John of Damascus during Hill AbbeyWes Callihan, the author of the Old Western Culture curriculum, has been offering live classes through Schola Classical Tutorials since 1997. In addition to “Great Books I-IV” (corresponding to Old Western Culture years 1-4: The Greeks, The Romans, Christendom, and Early Moderns), Wes Callihan also teaches Homeric Greek, Rhetoric, Church History, and Astronomy.

A pioneer of the modern Classical education movement and a teacher of teachers, a live class with Wes Callihan is not something to be missed! He is known for his ability to bring the essence of the Great Books that shaped the Western world into story form, and create an environment of community and camaraderie among his student, who can live-chat questions during his lectures. As a generation of Schola graduates now demonstrate, the end result are students who leave his classes with the love of learning and the kernel of curiosity planted in their hearts and minds.

SPECIAL PROMOTION

Schola Classical TutorialsAs a special promotion running SEPTEMBER 1st – 7th, receive 1 unit from The Greeks  FREE with any NEW course sign-up from Schola Classical Tutorials ($56 value)! Once you’ve signed up at the Schola website, send an email to info@romanroadsmedia.com with your unit of choice from The Greeks and we’ll send you the DVD set!

Enjoy Wes Callihan live AND have his teaching in DVD form!